On 29 December 1959, a well-known American physicist Dr. Richard Feynman asked “What would happen if we could arrange the atoms one by one the way we want them?” during the meeting of the American Physical Society. This idea is the result of today’s nanotechnology said C. Milburn in his article Engineering the Future (2008).

It is obvious that nanotechnology is one of the modern techniques of material science. medicine, agriculture and food industry, amongst others. Nanoparticles in nanotechnology can be defined as objects ranging in size from 1-100 nm that due to their size may differ from the bulk material. These particles display definite characteristics reflecting their chemical, physical and biological performances. Presently, the most effectively studied nanoparticles are those made from noble metals, in particular Silver (Ag), Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au) and Palladium (Pd). Especially silver has drawn the attention of scientists because of their extensive application in the development of new technology in the areas of electronics, material science and medicine at the nanoscale. Nanosilver particles have found tremendous application in the field of high sensitivity biomolecular detection and diagnostics, antimicrobials, therapeutics, catalysis and microelectronics. Therefore there is still a need for economic commercially visible as well as environmentally clean synthesis route to synthesis silver nanoparticles.
This modern technology is a comparatively new discipline to revolutionize the agricultural for global food security and the environmental. In crop protection, importantly, nanoparticles endure DNA and other desired chemicals into plant tissues for protection of host plants against insect pests like Tribolium castaneum even acts upon certain physiological functions of pests. Besides, their use dramatically increases the field-life of various nanogel-loaded pheromones that can effectively disrupt the life cycles of harmful crop pests, such as Bactrocera dorsalisHelicoverpa armigera Scirphophaga incertulasLeucinodes orbonalis others.

In Bangladesh, approximately 70% of its population depends on agriculture for livelihood and around 23% of the national GDP is derived from this sector. However, most of the farmers are both poor and illiterate. They give their very little attention to crop production. Consequently, on average 20 percent of total cultivated crops are lost annually due to pests, diseases and weeds. The idea of agricultural pests and parasitoids is very poor. As a result, a good number of pesticides have been used indiscriminately to eradicate pests. This practice leads poison to the food chain, causes survival risks to many useful insects. Nevertheless, to compete with great population pressure and globalization as well, the existing practices in agriculture should be improved in Bangladesh.

It is a fact that Bangladesh is one of the Asian countries that have not yet established nanotechnology programs or initiatives except with limited R&D projects. So far, the Materials Science Division of the Atomic Energy Centre in Dhaka is carrying out some research works in the field of nanotechnology covering areas such as the synthesis of nanoparticles by chemical methods for studying their magnetic and dielectric properties.

A team composed of major four disciplinary researchers affiliated to Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories Dhaka & Chittagong, Bangladesh Forest Research Institute, and Zoology Department, University of Chittagong has been performing research on crop protection by utilizing nanoparticles since three years in an experimental field in BCSIR Laboratories Chittagong. Preliminary, this research team investigated the impact of purified silver (Ag), gold (Au) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in three economically important legume plants named Cicer arietinumPisum sativum and Phaseolus acutifolius.

Above all, to secure safe and sustainable agriculture and eco-friend environment are the major concerns for nanobiotechnology ethically. To do so, in 2013, FAO and WHO published a report summarizing and analyzing 40 scientific information on nanotechnology drawing the possible courses of action that to be followed by FAO, WHO and other organizations in this matter. The Federal Government's of German “Nanotechnology 2015 Action Plan” carries on from the “Nano-Initiative – Action Plan 2010” to reach the nanotechnology sector that is both safe and sustainable. Bangladesh's Government also should take the necessary steps for a safe and sound future.

'Through millions and millions of years of evolution, termites and their symbiont have acquired highly specialized enzymes that work together to efficiently convert wood and other plant materials into simple sugars; these enzymes are of the most value to bioethanol production' said Michael Scharf, an entomologist at the University of Florida in 2010”.

Undoubtedly, fuels are the world’s main energy resource and are considered the centre of energy demands. Nowadays, the world is confronted with two issues of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Eventually, most of the great powers have been convinced of the need to develop zero-emissions and renewable infinite energies in order to replace fossil fuels and to help achieve a development that is harmonious, balanced, and respectful to the environment.

Promoting the cultivation of some popular plant species for biofuel production results in a negative impact on biodiversity currently in different countries. This trend might be threatened to the planet in the long run. In addition, specific plant cultivation or monocropping for biofuel output is a new question for food security globally. For instance, in 2010 biomass harvest may eventually be conducted on over 100 000 000 hectares of US crop and forest lands to meet federally-mandated targets for renewable biofuels. Such large scale land-use changes could profoundly impact working landscapes and the arthropod communities that inhabit both beneficial and destructive. Furthermore, host shifts into biofuel crops by existing insect fauna are likely to be an ongoing process, creating new pest management challenges as the production of existing crops expands to new areas such as canola insect pests in Alabama in anticipation of increased production for biodiesel. Notable, the first known occurrence of the North American endemic clover stem weevil, Languria mozardi, on canola (Landis and Werling 2010). Besides the production of biofuel crops including initial crop selection, genetic improvement, agronomic practices, and harvest regimes will also influence local flora and fauna species.

In Bangladesh, the annual demand for fuel of around 3.7 million tons, including 2.4 million tons of diesel and imports the entire amount from Middle East countries mostly. The high cost of petroleum products, low coverage of the electricity grid, gasification and increasing scarcity of traditional fuel woods due to deforestation, created an energy deficit situation in rural Bangladesh. Environmental experts predicted massive deforestation if the crisis is not being met from an alternative source. Gas and electricity coverage cannot expand appreciably as both are in crisis now and need an injection of huge capital. A recent survey reveals that power outages result in a loss of industrial output worth US$1 billion a year which reduces the GDP growth by about half a percentage point in Bangladesh. Renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources are crucial for defining the economic and social sustainability of the country stated by Muhit et al (2014).

Insect pests cause around 20 percent losses of agricultural crops in Bangladesh annually. As the target specimens are phytophagous insects, they are easily collected from the field. It will assist to keep pests in check without increasing the use of pesticides; declining the diversity of farmland even further by planting more corn had an unexpected, unintended impact in reducing the biological control on a different crop. There are many opportunities for research in biofuel in our country by using non-food crops, non-edible parts of many plants phytophagous pests, especially from cellulose.

Therefore government sectors, as well as non-government sectors, may give their special attention to this sector for sound both economic and environment. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of certification schemes at reducing environmental risks from biofuels will require full participation from all major producers and buyers as well as strong monitoring systems. The central goals of any biofuel policy must minimize risks to biodiversity and climate.

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